ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

High blood pressure is the most common cardiovascular disease:

 According to all the studies carried out in Algeria we can say that a little more than a quarter of the Algerian population over the age of 18 is hypertensive. The risk of developing hypertension increases with age. 

Mortality from high blood pressure is very high around the world. Cardiovascular disease is responsible for around 17 million deaths per year worldwide, or nearly a third of total mortality. 

What is high blood pressure?

High blood pressure is a constant or episodic increase in blood pressure in the blood vessels, which increases the work of the heart pump and causes the vessels to harden. High blood pressure is defined as a systolic pressure equal to or greater than 140 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure equal to or greater than 90 mm Hg.

-Risk factors.

Behavioral and lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of high blood pressure. 

These factors include smoking, unhealthy diet and excessive salt intake, physical inactivity, overweight, obesity and harmful alcohol consumption. High blood pressure is said to be essential, that is to say without a cause in 95% of cases. The family hereditary character is very frequent.

-Complications.

Over time, the heart will tire, it is heart failure which is one of the major complications in people with hypertension. 

The vessels will also undergo significant changes aggravated by their aging (atherosclerosis) which will lead to angina pectoris (narrowing of the coronary arteries), heart attack (obliteration of the coronary arteries), stroke, vascular dementia and disease of the arteries of the lower limbs (arteriopathy).

 On the other hand, high blood pressure will gradually impair kidney function leading to kidney failure. 

In order to avoid these complications, it will be necessary to carry out early detection and effective management based on a healthy lifestyle (adequate weight, low-salt diet providing less than 6 grams of salt per day, physical activity: 30 minutes three per week, smoking cessation and a quiet life with little stress).

 Besides that, it is necessary to correctly balance the diabetes in diabetic subjects and also the cholesterol in those who have a high level.

 High blood pressure is a silent disease, grossly underdiagnosed and undertreated. Often, it is only detected during routine medical visits or when it has already caused serious damage.

-Treatment.

Screening at an early stage protects against progression to the stage of complicated hypertension and facilitates treatment. 

Five main classes of drugs are recommended for the treatment of high blood pressure 

. Despite the availability of effective drug treatments for high blood pressure, the rate of blood pressure control in Algeria and around the world remains insufficient.

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